Training and pruning :
About one meter from the base on the main trunk should be kept free from branching and the main stem can be allowed thereafter spaced at 20-25 cm apart in such a way that they grow in different directions. Branches which cross over/rub each other may be removed at pencil thickness.
Fertiliser Application :
In general, 170 gm urea, 110 gm single super phosphate and 115 gm muriate of potash per plant per year of the age from first to tenth year and thereafter 1.7 kg, 1.1 kg, and 1.15 kg respectively of these fertilisers per plant per year can be applied in two equal split doses (June-July and October). Foliar spray of 3% urea is recommended before flowering in sandy areas.
Young plants are watered frequently for proper estalbishment. In case of grown up trees, irrigation at 10 to 15 days interval from fruit set to maturity is beneficial for improving yield. However, irrigation is not recommended for 2-3 months prior to flowering as it is likely to promote vegetative growth at the expense of flowering.
Inter cropping :
Inter crops such as vegetables, legumes, short duration and dwarf fruit crops like papaya, guava, peach, plum, etc. depending on the agro-climatic factors of the region can be grown. The water and nutrient requirements of the inter crops must be met separately.
Plant Protection :
Mango is prone to damages by a large number of pests, diseases and disorders. The recommended control measures for most important and common among them are briefed below :
Mango hopper : Two sprays (at panicles emergency and at pea size of fruits) of carbaryl (0.15%), monocrotophos (0.04%) or phosphamidan (0.05).
Mealy bug : Ploughing inter spaces in November and dusting 2% methyl parathion @200 g per tree near the trunk and fixing 20 cm wide 400 gauge polythene strips around the trunk with grease applied on the lower edge in January as prophylactic measures and two sprays of monocrotophos (0.04%) at 15 days interval as control are needed.
Powdery mildew : Two to three sprays of wettable sulphur (0.2%) or Kerathane (0.1%) at 10-15 days interval.
Anthracrose : Two sprays of Baristin (0.1%) at fortnight interval.
Malformation : One spray of 200 ppm NAA in October followed by deblossoming at bud burst stage in December - January.
Fruit drop : Regular irrigation during fruit development, timely and effective control of pests and diseases and spraying 20 ppm NAA at pea size of fruits.
Harvesting and yield :
Graft plants start bearing at the age of 3 - 4 years (10-20 fruits) to give optimum crop from 10-15th year which continues to increase upto the age of 40 years under good management.
Post Harvest Management :
Storage : Shelf life of mangoes being short (2 to 3 weeks) they are cooled as soon as possible to storage temperatue of 13 degree Celcius. A few varieties can withstand storage temperature of 10 degree Celcius. Steps involved in post harvest handling include preparation, grading, washing, drying, waxing, packing, pre-cooling, palletisation and transportation.
Packaging : Mangoes are generally packed in corrugated fibre board boxes 40 cm x 30 cm x 20cm in size. Fruits are packed in single layer 8 to 20 fruits per carton. The boxes should have sufficient number of air holes (about 8% of the surface area) to allow good ventillation.
Financial institutions have also formulated mango financing schemes in potential areas for expansion of area under mango. Individual mango development schemes with farm infrastructure facilities like well, pumpset, fencing and drip irrigation system etc. have also been considered.
Farm model for financing one hectare mango orchard is furnished in the Annexure I.
Unit Cost : The unit cost varies from state to state. The cost presented here is indicative only. The enterpreneurs and the bankers are requested to consult our Regional Offices for the latest information in this regard. The unit cost estimated for this model scheme is Rs.34400/- per ha capitalised upto the fifth year. The break-up deatails are given in Annexure I.
Financial Analysis : Results of financial analysis are indicated below :