I. PROJECTS FOR ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE OF GROUNDWATER IN PUNJAB
Objective : To augment declining Ground Water Resources by way of Artificial Recharge of surface water in pre-dominantly agrarian Punjab State where depletion of ground water resources has been emerging as a major area of concern. Background : About 75% of total irrigated land in the state depends on ground-water resources, which have been over exploited in 108 out of total 142 blocks in the state. Such excessive uses have resulted in rapid decline of water table across the state.
Tranche : RIDF XIII
Implementing Agency : Punjab Water Resources Environment Directorate
No of districts : 11
Project Cost : 961.90 lakh
RIDF Loan : 913.81 lakh
With water table going down, small farmers using their shallow tubewells to irrigate their lands were the worst affected. Against this backdrop, the project has been conceived to use excess canal water during lean period/monsoon season and/or by utilizing monsoon runoff in drains. Project Components/ Working of the system
During lean season as also monsoon period, excess water of canal/drains is diverted to the distribution tank for sedimentation, and then passed through filtration tanks filled with graded inverted filters. Post-filtration, the water is recharged into the ground via specifically designed injection wells for the purpose.
Expected Benefits: On completion, the project is expected to recharge 93.984 MCM of water annually to augment the ground water table.
II. EDUSAT PROJECTS IN PUNJAB
Objective : To impart quality education in Government Education Institutions in Rural areas with the help of modern Information and Satellite Communication Technology. Brief description : EDUSAT is a geosynchronous satellite launched by ISRO to impart quality education in the remotest corner of the country. The project envisages using its services to bring in qualitative improvements in all the Government Secondary Schools in the State which are connected by low cost two way interactivity and IP based connectivity.
Tranche : RIDF XV Implementing Agency : Punjab EDUSAT society, Department of Education No of projects : 23 No of districts : All Project Cost : 9467.21 lakh RIDF Loan : 6507.62 lakh
Classroom contents are received and queries transmitted to the studio. Point to point video conferencing and Multimedia and multi-centric system are possible. It reaches the remote parts of the state and links various institutions concerning higher education, medical education, technical Education and school education. Major project components : Installation of 609 Receive Only Terminals (ROTs) and 392 Satellite Interactive Terminals(SITs), Provision of 1121 Gensets, Creation of 1395 Computer Labs with 10 Desktops, UPS, Acoustics Improvement in ROT/SIT rooms, Multimedia Soft skill and Course Content Development etc. Coverage : The Project covers 1395 number of Govt. Senior Secondary Schools and 106 number of higher education institutions. Expected Benefits : More than 1.2 million students from 1501 Rural Education Institutions across the state will have access to quality education through use of modern technology.
III. RAINWATER RECHARGING/HARVESTING PROJECTS IN PUNJAB
Tranche : RIDF XVII
Implementing Agency : Department of Soil & Water Conservation
No of projects : 788
No of districts : 12
Project Cost : 13000.00 lakh
RIDF Loan : 11400.00 lakh
Objective : Construction of rainwater harvesting structures for recharging of groundwater and/or enhancing irrigation potential in Punjab State and arresting soil erosion due to run off.
Project Components: Construction of 118 Small Rainwater Recharging Dams for recharging ground water, Construction of 181 small Rainwater Harvesting Dams with Underground Pipeline (UGPL) for irrigation and laying of UGPL system in 489 identified agricultural fields. Expected Benefits
On completion, 35000 Ha of land across 300 villages will receive irrigation and 4.77 MCM water is expected to be recharged annually.
IV. WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT FOR VILLAGES OF MAHARASHTRA
Objective: The project objective is to construct and maintain a sustainable and appropriate structure to treat the waste water generated in 94 large villages with population more than 15,000 with active participation from village institutions and utilise the water so generated after treatment for irrigation.
Background: Villages having population of more than 15,000 are necessarily those villages which are fast urbanising and acquiring urban characteristics. These villages are growing rapidly in an unplanned manner and are facing shift in utilisation of water from agricultural to domestic and industrial use. Sanitation facilities are largely neglected in such villages. This results in deterioration of quality of life. In case of villages located along major river stretches, the surface water bodies are causing pollution of water bodies and affecting downstream users. Due to limited availability of water for irrigation, the cash crops of these villages are not yielding the stipulated yield. The treated waste water will help in improving water available for irrigation, apart from providing healthy living environment.
Maharashtra Jeevan Pradhikaran will implement the project utilising a basket of low cost and low maintenance technologies through community participation, the project will be implemented in partnership with Gram Panchayat and Village Water and Sanitation Committee (VWSC). The relevant performance indicators implementing the Waste Water Management Project would be :
• Village should treat 100% solid and liquid waste generated in the village
• Percentage of tax recovery
The intent of villages to treat 100% liquid waste will align with their willingness to participate in the project and their higher percentage of tax recovery will enhance their capacity for O&M.
Thus the villages performing well on the above mentioned indicators under eco village program will be given priority. The project will be implemented in coordination with eco village program and focusing on convergent community action.
Creating the basket of appropriate technology options based on local situation, feasibility, capital and O&M liability
Project Parameters: Primary objective of this project is to utilise appropriate technology options to treat waste water generated by the villages while a range of technology options are available for waste water treatment at village level, population, characteristics of waste water, quantity of waste water, Capital cost, land availability, power availability, O & M costs would influence the selection of technology. Besides, topography and habitation pattern of the village and partial network of drains, some of the villages may demand for decentralised approach for waste water management. Thus developing localised and decentralised treatment facilities and making treated waste water available for irrigation are necessary preconditions to select appropriate options for waste water treatment facilities. Considering all these requirements and constraints, the following technologies are found appropriate.
• Soil Biotechnology
Description of the technologies
Phytorid - The Phytorid system is based on the technology of constructed wet land with combination of filter media and plants. This patented technological marvel of NEERI, Nagpur uses different types of aquatic, flowering and ornamental plant species for treatment and aesthetic purposes. The treatment process entails physical, chemical and biological processes working in combination to remove contaminants from waste water.
SBT - The Soil Bio Technology treatment method (patented by IIT, Mumbai) entails construction of a raised platform with different soil strata to act as the filter media. This treatment methodology also includes the usage of plants, various micro organisms and earthworms in the soil for purifying the waste water. Photosynthesis and respiration process of the plants helps to maintain oxygen levels in the treatment unit. These without any nuisance of odour and smell, purification of waste water takes place.
Typical features for 0.80 MLD plant and waste removal characteristics of both these technologies are presented in the tables below.
Retention time (Hr)
1000 to 1500
O & M Cost (/m2)
1 to 2
1 to 2
Project Benefits: The schemes will benefit 94 villages covering about 3.76 lakh households and a population of 18.51 lakh. An area of 10,340 ha. of agriculture is expected to benefit from the treated water. The villages covered under these schemes would have complete waste water treatment with recovery rate ranging from 90% to 96%, making the recycled water available for irrigation. Gram Panchayats propose to sell the water for irrigation and earn revenue to meet the operation cost of the project.
The following benefits accrue from the project
Revenue may be earned by Waste water tax levied by the Gram Panchayat and also by increased productivity in agriculture and livestock due to regenerated water. Besides, a few other sources of indirect benefits have also been identified and an attempt has been made to quantify the same.
Improved health conditions resulting in saving in the expenditure on medicines and health care.
Increase in dairy income as a result of assured water availability
Additional benefits such as improvement in the health status of the house hold, reduction in sickness, and thereby increase in agricultural productivity, inducement to dairy activity and reducing absenteeism in the schools, particularly for girls, etc, though difficult to quantify, would certainly add to the benefits and the welfare of the households in a large measure.
V. KISAN SEVA KENDRA CUM VILLAGE KNOWLEDGE CENTRES CUM LAND RECORD INFORMATION CENTRES IN RAJASTHAN
Objective: To strengthen agriculture information system through establishment of Kisan Sewa Kendra Cum Village Knowledge Center cum Land Record Information Center (KSK-VKC-LRIC), on already constructed Bharat Nirman Rajiv Gandhi Sewa Kendra (BNRGSK) buildings. This is an innovative approach of Govt of Rajasthan towards maximising the utility of government infrastructure and providing one end solution to all problems of farmer community.
Project Components: NABARD has sanctioned 3,249 such projects at all Panchayat Samities and 3,000 Gram Panchayats in Rajasthan, under RIDF-XVII, with total financial assistance of 280.15 crore.
The BNRGSK were established by GoR at Panchayat Samities and Gram Panchayat level as e-service delivery outlets in conformity with the vision of National e-governance Plan (NeGP). To ensure 24 hours power supply solar panels are installed on these centres and all the computers are running 100 percent from the electricity generated through solar energy.
These centres are currently functioning as facilitating centres of the MGNREGS. To make efficient use of already established infrastructure at BNRGSK and providing various agriculture and revenue department related services to the farmers, the KSK-VKC-LRIC shall be established by GoR with the following objectives.
Farmers will get the services of Panchayati Raj & Rural Development Department, Revenue Department and Agriculture Department at the same place. As the works related to these three departments comprises almost 75 percent of total administrative work, these centres may provide services to farmers on single window approach. Therefore, the concept of ‘GRAM SACHIWALAYA’ of Government of Rajasthan will be available at village level.
The video conference facility available at BNRGSK may come handy in easy and effective communication between farmers, with agriculture personnel and agriculture scientists. Organisation of Krishak Pathshala to train farmers in latest agricultural technologies including high yielding variety of seeds, balanced use of manures & fertilizers, plant protection measures and use of latest engineering tools in agriculture, organic farming, social forestry, horticultural crops, crop diversification, package of practices of different crops, input availability & their judicious use etc.
Agricultural Inputs, agriculture implements, plant protection equipments, specimens (crops, weeds, fertilizers, biofertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, IPM kits etc) technical literature (pamphlets, folders, posters, leaflets, POP, charts etc) would be placed/stored at these centers.
These centers may also be developed as agriculture exhibition rooms. e-classes with the agriculture experts shall also be organized by utilising already existing video conference facilities at BNRGSK. This may also help in preparation of implementable agriculture plans and input and finance management on the area based approach.
Various statistical data like geographical area, land use & cropping pattern, crop production statistics, agricultural implements & plant protection equipments along with the insect-pest survey records & agricultural inputs may also be maintained
Various government schemes such as ATMA, NHM, NFSM, RKVY, ISOPOM, RADP, AFDP, INSIMP etc. in which activities such as Mini kit distribution, IPM & large scale FFS based demonstrations, pre season special campaigns (Kharif & Rabi Abhiyan), farmers fairs & exhibitions, field days, Kisan Goshthies may also be organized at Gram Panchayat and village level.
These centres may also wok as village collection centres of soil samples for soil testing & distribution of soil health cards to the concerned farmers
At the time of natural calamities like flood, famine, drought, fire or any other disaster these centres may also work as disaster relied centres and information relating to such happenings are expected to reach the district administration at the earliest in conformity to the Govt of India "National Land Records Modernisation Programme, 2008" (NLRMP-2008). The computerised records relating to land revenue will be provided to the farmers
At these centres, the computerised copies of the Record of Right (ROR) through Apna khata application at village level, the copies of khasra maps of individual tenants, Sajra including index of fields and village map, Zamabandi or Khatoni (record of all tenants liable to pay revenue to the Govt), Mutation Register, Fardbadar representing the corrections and correction modes, Dhalbahchh i.e. Register of land revenue demands, Siyah i.e. Cash Book , Receipt Book, Challans and Maang Patra (demand slip) shall be maintained.
VI. SPOT / PRIVATE LIFT IRRIGATION PROJECTS IN ODISHA
Objectives: Augmentation of irrigation facility, optimum utilisation of irrigation potential through privately owned and managed dug well, bore well, shallow tube well and lift irrigation structures by individual beneficiaries for assured irrigation
The projects are implemented in all districts of the state under “JalaNidhi” scheme announced by Govt of Odisha.
Scheme announced in State Agricultural Policy, 1996 and further implemented as per the New State Agricultural Policy, 2008 with the objective of creating irrigation potential with one lakh captive Irrigation structures / Private LI points targeted during 2006-07 to 2011-12
Predominantly, Dug well, Bore well & Shallow Tube Well projects are covered under the scheme.
The scheme is implemented by Agriculture Dept. in conformity with the prescribed technical specifications i.e., Diameter, depth, spacing etc. for each structure. Ground water based structures should be proposed only in those blocks which are suitable for further ground water development and sufficient ground water balance is available.
The scheme is subsidy linked and APICOL is the designated Agency for channelizing subsidy
Under RIDF- 95% of subsidy released by APICOL is reimbursed
RIDF Loan :
A total of 92373 of spot / Private Lift Irrigation projects have been sanctioned to Agriculture Deptt under RIDF - XI to XVII tranche (except XVI) involving RIDF loan of Rs 226.83 crore. All the projects sanctioned under RIDF-XI to XV have been completed. The level of utilisation of RIDF loan is 100 %. Under RIDF- XVII, Rs 79.98 crore was sanctioned for 30219 projects, out of which 14688 projects are completed.
Implementation Mechanism :
• State allocation targets decided annually and then distributed district wise
• Projects implemented By Agril Deptt - executed by beneficiaries themselves or through empanelled executants of KSK
• Identification of beneficiary, site selection, suitability of structure assessed and facilitated by VLW, JAO, KSK
• Installation / execution done as per technical specification under technical guidance of Asstt. Agril Engineer, KSK
• Completion of installation of unit verified & certified by by JAO, KSk
• The beneficiary on completion of unit becomes eligible for subsidy
Subsidy linked scheme- Subsidy claims of beneficiaries forwarded by JAO to KSK,
which in turn recommends to MD, APICOL for release of subsidy
• All farmers irrespective of size of land holding will be entitled for subsidy
• The project after installation will increase the irrigation potential of the land holding of individual farmer and boost up crop production resulting enhancing the economic standard of individual farmers.
Uniqueness and specialty of the scheme:
• Since the project is installed in the land of the owner of the land and he is directly benefitted in getting irrigation water, he will ensure the quality of the project installation and the burden of maintenance will not come under the annual budget of Govt of Odisha.
• In addition to it the objective of Govt in increasing the irrigation potential of the state and increase in food production is achieved.
Management/ operation rest with the farmer and no need to form WUAs.
• Some of the farmers are also selling water to the adjacent farm. Thus the irrigation potential created is likely to be utilised optimally.
• The project will indirectly help in privatising the irrigation sector.
• More than 90 per cent of farmers/beneficiaries under the irrigation programmes have attempted double cropping.
• Feasibility of structure is assessed on the basis of field level survey by Dist. Agriculture deptt. Technical inputs and guidance is provided by KSK and Agril. Deptt. To ensure successful implementation of appropriate structures.
• Besides increase in cropping intensity productivity has also increased due to assured irrigation.
• In major and medium irrigation projects gestation period is very high and there is always a gap between irrigation potential created and utilised while in these projects farmers immediate get the benefit and irrigation efficiency is very high which can further be increased by using sprinkler and drip irrigation system.
• Increase of irrigation potential with less Govt. Cost
• Increase of employability of agricultural laborers in off season, also, due to availability of irrigation throughout the year and continuity in production.
• Decrease in migration of laborers to other states during off season i.e. Rabi season
• Rising of cash crops in Rabi season resulting in improvement in the economic standard of farmers.
• Lift irrigation is a controlled irrigation system in which cash crops like vegetables, oil seed crops, Arahar, Black gram, Ground nut, sugar cane etc can be grown which cannot be grown in flow irrigation system since canals remained closed from Nov to Jan for allowing the kharif paddy to be harvested and land to be prepared. But the month of Nov to Dec is the planting season for wheat, black gram, ground nut, vegetables etc.
• The individual farmers are also able to utilize the water for irrigation of farmer’s own fields as well as sell the surplus water for irrigating the fields of adjacent farmers.
A quick study observations:
• Farmers with assured irrigation, cultivated Paddy and Vegetables in Kharif; and Ground nut, Pulses, etc in Rabi season
• A few farmers also initiated cultivation of non- traditional crops/ cash crops like chilly, sapota, banana, etc. along with vegetables.
Average Incremental income per acre of benefited area ranged between Rs.8000 to Rs.10000 per year.
• In a few cases, farmers were observed using water for allied and non-farm sector activities like dairy, brick making etc.
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development